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徐洪才博客

中国国际经济交流中心经济研究部部长,金融学教授

 
 
 

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徐洪才:中国国际经济交流中心经济研究部部长、研究员、教授。1996年获中国社科院经济学博士学位。曾任国经中心信息部部长、首都经贸大学证券期货研究中心主任、风投公司高管、证券公司高管、中央银行官员、中国石化助理工程师。独著:《变革的时代:中国与全球经济治理》《全球化背景下的中国经济》《大国金融方略:中国金融强国的战略和方向》等。主编《工资、汇率与顺差:中国经济再平衡路径选择》《投资银行学》和《期货投资学》等。研究国际经济和国际关系。

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发展绿色经济需要金融支持  

2010-05-10 09:15:46|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 发展绿色经济需要金融支持

(徐洪才,《绿色经济与应对气候变化国际合作会议》,

国家会议中心,2010年5月7日–9日)

绿色经济是以经济和环境和谐为目的而发展起来的一种新的经济形式。发展绿色经济,不仅需要解决技术、法律和标准等问题,更离不开金融支持。

第一,要加强金融监管部门和环境保护部门的合作,制定政策鼓励金融机构推出绿色信贷、绿色证券和绿色保险等绿色金融产品。目前我国绿色金融产品单一,规模较小。在绿色信贷产品推进过程中有很多问题,如缺乏“绿色信贷”标准、绿色信贷指导目录和环境风险评级标准等,都需要政府部门帮助解决。

第二,金融机构要以科学发展观为指导,按照国民经济持续健康发展总体要求推进金融创新。商业银行应自觉遵守国家产业政策,重点支持战略性新兴产业、中小企业发展、居民合理消费需求和企业走出去;对属于国家产业政策淘汰的领域,如“两高一资”和“两高一剩”行业,根据风险状况做出审慎调整。

第三,金融机构应把调整信贷结构放在突出位置,重点调整行业结构、地区结构和客户结构。在行业结构方面,坚持“有进有退,有保有压,有先有后”的原则,加大潜在高风险客户主动退出力度,严格控制地方政府融资平台贷款总量,优化信贷行业投向,推进行业投向多样化,提高信贷资产质量和分散风险。

第四,金融机构应实现从粗放型向节约型转变,从片面追求市场份额向重视社会责任转变,从主要依靠利差收入向发展中间业务转变。金融机构应遵循市场准则,通过提供优质金融产品和服务,支持社会经济和环境可持续发展,在兼顾业务拓展和社会责任过程中寻求新的商机和可持续发展模式。

第五,资本市场在支持绿色经济发展中应该有所作为。证券监管部门应制定相关政策,扶持绿色经济行业的企业上市融资;证券经营机构也要把帮助推荐绿色经济相关行业的企业上市融资放在重要位置,引导社会资本向这些产业和领域合理流动。与此同时,开发与绿色经济相关的金融衍生产品,为企业提供风险管理工具。

第六,开发环境污染责任保险等保险品种。目前,我国推行这种保险产品存在以下制约因素:一是缺乏法律保障,企业是否参保并无制度约束,对侵权主体缺乏相应的责任追究制度;二是政策支持力度较弱,部分试点省市给予了政策支持,但停留在补贴投保企业保费层面,缺乏税收和风险保障基金等政策支持;三是缺乏统一的环境污染损害赔偿标准。

第七,加快建立我国排放配额制度和排放配额交易市场。以金融手段处理碳交易是当代生产方式向绿色经济方向转变的重要标志,它与建立世界碳交易体系和重构国际金融秩序密切相关。

总之,为发展绿色经济提供金融支持,需要金融机构、金融监管部门和全社会的广泛参与,其中最重要的是要提高金融机构的社会责任意识。

Financial Support is Needed for Development of Green Economy

(Xu Hongcai, International Cooperative Conference on Green Economy and Climate Change, China National Convention Center, May 7th–9th 2010)

Green economy is a new type of economy based on the purpose of harmony between economy and environment. Development of green economy not only needs to address technical, legal and standard issues, but also calls for financial support.

Firstly, it is necessary to strengthen cooperation between financial supervisory authorities and environmental protection agencies, and to formulate policies to encourage financial institutions to develop the green financial products such as green credit, green securities and green insurance. At present China's green financial products are too single and smaller. There are many problems in the process of promoting green credit products, such as lack of standard and guidance directory of green credit and environmental risk rating standards, which are all needed to be addressed by the government.

Secondly, financial institutions should follow the guidance of the Scientific Development Concept, improving financial innovation according to the overall requirements of sustainable and health development of national economy. Commercial banks should obey national industrial policies, focusing on supporting development of strategic emerging industries, small and medium enterprises, residents' reasonable consumption demand and enterprises’ ‘going global’. For those areas which have been knocked out by state industry policies such as ‘energy-intensive, high-pollution and resource consumption industries’, adjustments should be made prudentially according to risk evaluation.

Thirdly, financial institutions should highlight credit structure adjustment, focusing on adjustment of industry structure, regional structure and customer structures. In terms of industry structure, financial institutions should insist the principle of ‘advancing some things while withdrawing others, supporting some things while constraining others, prioritizing some things while deprioritizing others’, strengthening exit from high risk customers, strictly controlling overall volume of local governments’ financing platform, optimizing loans’ destinations, promoting diversification of industry destinations, improving credit quality and diversifying risks.

Fourthly, financial institutions should realize the transitions from extensive model to intensive model of economic development, from over-emphasizing market share to highlighting social responsibility, from relying mainly on the gap of interest rates to developing the income of medium business. By following market standards and providing high quality of financial products and services, financial institutions should support socio-economic and environmental sustainability, exploring new business opportunities and sustainable development model when developing business as well as fulfilling social responsibility.

Fifthly, the capital market should make a great contribution in supporting green economy development. The securities regulatory authorities should formulate relevant policies to support green economy business listing and financing. Securities firms should recommend green economy related companies to go public and introduce social capital rationally flow into these areas. At the same time, green economy-related financial derivatives should be developed to provide risk management tools.

Sixthly, China should develop environment pollution liability insurance and other insurance products. At present, China's insurance product innovation is limited by following factors: first of all, given lack of legal protection, there is no institutional constraints regarding if an enterprise has conducted insurance, leading to lack of appropriate subject to infringement of accountability; secondly, weaker policy support, certain pilot provinces and cities provide policy supports which however only refer to subsidies at the enterprise premium level, there is no policy supports in terms of tax and risk protection fund. Thirdly, there is no unified standard of environmental damage compensation.

Seventhly, China should accelerate the establishment of state emissions quota institutions and the emission quota trading market. Dealing with carbon trading through financial means is a significant signal for the transition from current production mode to the mode of green economy, which is closely relevant to establishing the world carbon trading system and the restructuring of international financial order.

In short, providing financial supports to developing green economy, demands extensive participations of financial institutions, financial regulatory authorities and the whole society, while it is most important to promote financial institutions’ awareness of social responsibility.

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